In this paper, we launch an in-depth and meticulous research to seek for and analyze factors causing pose errors. Afterwards our approach is applied to ample synthetic experiments. Please try the request again. NLM NIH DHHS USA.gov National Center for Biotechnology Information, U.S. this contact form
In the stage, three motors are connected to three adjacent substages by three ball screws, respectively, so each substage drives in only one direction (i.e. If the recognition of the mark is insufficient, there may be a misrecognition that influences the alignment quality, and the common mark is cross mark. Figure 9 shows different cases: 001 to 004 are general cases, 005 is underexposure, 006 to 009 are overexposure, 0010 to 0013 are incomplete mark, 0014 represents the image without mark, Although, the proposed method shows good accuracy, the average run time is 20.5?ms which causes the method to be difficult to be applied on high-speed/real-time alignment.
However, the stacked stage usually has cumulative errors, such as flatness error, parallelism error, and orthogonally error between axles. The industrial camera is Basler ace1300–30?gm equipped with low distortion telecentric lens. Jywe, “A four-degrees-of-freedom microstage for the compensation of eccentricity of a roundness measurement machine,” International Journal of Machine Tools and Manufacture, vol. 44, no. 4, pp. 365–371, 2004. We set a range of interesting (ROI), which is a rectangle area, and the mark recognition is done in the ROI.
View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at ScopusS. The top part of Table 2 shows the result of rotation of the stage at negative angles ( each time) when the mark1 is in the initial center position (-319.8?mm, 127.9?mm). In other words, more products represent more replacements. Subscribe Personal Sign In Create Account IEEE Account Change Username/Password Update Address Purchase Details Payment Options Order History View Purchased Documents Profile Information Communications Preferences Profession and Education Technical Interests Need
The binarized image is compared with the pattern image. Floating Reference Point TestIn order to validate the feasibility of floating reference point, the pattern image center captured from CCD1 (mark1) is set as the reference point for movement, as shown Due to the fact that the traditional stacked-type stage has cumulative errors of assembly and it is heavy, it has been gradually replaced by the coplanar stage characterized by three actuators Please try the request again.
Li, “Design and control of a long-traveling nano-positioning stage,” Precision Engineering, vol. 34, no. 3, pp. 497–506, 2010. This method is the floating reference point method.Figure 6: Basic concept of image alignment.Figure 7: Conceptual graph of analysis of image alignment.3.2. The simplest image alignment mode uses two cameras as the equipments for feedback control, and the work piece is placed on the working stage. To transfer the mark position to the original, the mark position is .
The image processing procedure in this study is described below: during image processing, the actual image (Figure 10(a)) and pattern image (Figure 10(b)) are binarized. Liu et al., “A novel 5DOF thin coplanar nanometer-scale stage,” Precision Engineering, vol. 32, no. 4, pp. 239–250, 2008. As shown in Figure 11, when the stage moves in -direction (from 0?mm to 10?mm), the positioning repeatability is about . Ideally, the reference center should be not changed when we rotated the stage around the reference center.
Li, T. http://gigyahosting1.com/error-analysis/error-analysis-outline.php Hsu, and Y.-T. In: Proceedings of IEEE International Conference on Robotics and Automation (1999)3.Rodriguez, J.J., Aggarwal, J.K.: Quantization error in stereo imaging. Thus, this system also shows good stability.
The repeatability is still good, and the interference in -direction is about 0.35%. It may be imagined that if the mark is a circle, it is likely to be confused with the solder joint in the detection of PCB; if the mark is a Pedestrians are detected by combining a 3D clustering method with Support Vector Machine-based (SVM) classification. navigate here Sato, A.
The stage is measured by Keyence GT2-H12K. IntroductionVisual servo control with digital image processing for optical image alignment has been applied in many processes in recent years, such as MEMS, biochip, semiconductor, LED, LCD, and the popular touch proposed a real time critical dimension measurement of TFT-LCD pattern .
Note that the setup error sources of , , and are related to the parallelism of the base board and the working board. A. After linearization of (2), (3), and (4), the parameters of (1) are ,??, and .Figure 2: Three-dimensional motion, , , and : (a) motion; (b) motion; (c) motion.Figure 3: Coordinate definition They are usually ignored in practical applications, leading to inaccurate pose.
View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at ScopusY.-H. Lin, “Application of visual servo-control X-Y table in color filter cross mark alignment,” Sensors and Actuators A, vol. 152, no. 1, pp. 53–62, 2009. Using the piezoelectric actuators to construct the coplanar type of stage can be presented in many papers and they showed good positioning accuracy [6–9]. http://gigyahosting1.com/error-analysis/error-analysis-mathematics-pdf.php The experimental results are shown in Figures 17 and 18.
Each alignment motion of this system was shorter than one second, and each alignment motion could be completed within three times of correction. Kuo et al. The estimated error trend is as shown in Figure 5.Table 1: Estimated glass position error when the camera setup error is existed. (unit: mm, degrees).Figure 5: Positioning error estimation results: (a) The disparity search space is computed from 2 m to 30 m.Error Analysis in a Stereo Vision-Based Pedestrian Detection Sensor for Collision Avoidance ApplicationsSensors (Basel). 2010;10(4):3741-3758.Figure 9.Size of the disparity search
Nian, and Y. Thus, the mark recognition time of is 16 times faster than . The RTK-DGPS is used as ground truth data from both pedestrian position and vehicle position. Tarng, “Precision nano-alignment system using machine vision with motion controlled by piezoelectric motor,” Mechatronics, vol. 18, no. 1, pp. 21–34, 2008.
If the linear displacement of stage is represented as (unit: mm) and angular displacement of the stage is represented as (unit: radius), the displacement of motors is (unit: pulse); the basic View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at ScopusW.-Y. Shibuya, and G. This kind of component mechanism makes the working platform only with three degrees of motion.(4)Working stage: the stage carries work pieces or processed goods.
Error AnalysisThe stage consists of four substages. The influence of the sensor parameters in the stereo quantization errors is analyzed in detail providing a point of reference for choosing the sensor setup according to the application requirements. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at ScopusH. The axial direction of Motor 1 and Motor 2 is parallel to the -direction of the stage; Motor 3 is under the working stage (not displayed in the figure).
Generated Sun, 20 Nov 2016 17:46:55 GMT by s_wx1196 (squid/3.5.20) ERROR The requested URL could not be retrieved The following error was encountered while trying to retrieve the URL: http://0.0.0.8/ Connection IEEE Transactions on Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence 23(2), 140–148 (2001)CrossRefMathSciNet11.Ansar, A., Danniilidis, K.: Linear Pose Estimation from Points or Lines. H. Yim, Y.